Introduction to Literate Programming

Welcome to a brief tutorial on literate programming in org-mode.

The following began as the basis for a workshop for the PDX Emacs Hackers meetup, but since everyone couldn’t attend, I decided to expand it into a tutorial. I assume you understand the basics of Emacs and as well as familiarity with org-mode for creating exported documents.

As you probably know, Org is pretty large, and the features for writing, evaluating and connecting blocks of source code in a document are extensive, and documenting them all is a daunting task. I hope this tutorial is a good start, but if I glossed over something you feel I should include, please let me know.

Warning: The examples are pretty lame.


During my workshop, I mentioned needing version v8.2.10 of org-mode (or better). Since org comes with Emacs, you may already have a version, so type: C-h v and org-version, to see if everything in this tutorial will work (most things will, but…).

If you need a newer version, use our ELPA friend by running this code:

(when (>= emacs-major-version 24)
  (require 'package)
  (add-to-list 'package-archives
               '("org" . "")
  (package-install "org"))

That should do it. You may want to also install org-plus-contrib.

During this tutorial, I wanted to demonstrate many of the available language interfaces, but this means, you’d have to have a slew of interpreters installed locally, so in this tutorial, I hope you have the following:

  • Shell (sorry, this might be hard for you Windows people)
  • Python
  • Ruby

However, you’re a smart cookie, so feel free to translate these silly examples into your favorite language.


Before we dive into how org-mode does literate programming, perhaps I should briefly describe literate programming.

Why Literate Programming?

Literate Programming was first invented by Donald Knuth in 1980’s in an attempt to emphasize communication to other members on your team. As Donald Knuth once wrote:

“Let us change our traditional attitude to the construction of programs. Instead of imagining that our main task is to instruct a computer what to do, let us concentrate rather on explaining to human beings what we want a computer to do.”

Wanting programs to be written for human understanding, with the order based on logic of the problem, and not constrained to deficiencies in the programming language, we create a literate programming document that generates a document for people and the source code files:


The idea is to invert code peppered with comments to prose interjected with code.

While the resulting source code tangled from a literate programming document, may look the same as a source file coded directly, this idea did not change our industry (although it is used, to various degrees, in niche circles).

Why Org?

Knuth’s original literate programming approach was text with minimal editor support, as he only wrote the WEB program1 to create (weave) the documentation and write (tangle) the source code.

From my perspective, literate programming can only be useful with help from an editor, for instance the iPython’s notebook. Unlike iPython’s JSON storage of the files, I think everything should be readable text, as Carsten Dominik wrote:

“In the third millennium, does it still make sense to work with text files? Text files are the only truly portable format for files. The data will never get lost.”

So if you buy into literate programming, org-mode is fookin’ brilliant, especially since we already use org-mode for everything else, right?


Some of the advantages of using org-mode for your source code:

  • Better documentation for your source code
  • Great for team communication for issues and problems
  • Clarification of your own thoughts of complicated situations
  • Note-oriented REPL for investigating new libraries and APIs
  • Inter-language facility for using the best tool for the job (for instance, querying a database, manipulating it with a general purpose language)
  • Org’s organizational features, like Agendas and tasks

A Warning

The software world of the 1980s is quite different than our current landscape, as engineers are more connected and work in teams, but they don’t often use the same tools. Even if your team doesn’t use Emacs, you may still find org-mode’s approach useful.

First, it is a good way to work through complicated algorithms, and once you have something good, commit the resulting source code (as the prose you write become comments in the code), or when you get stuck, you can send your notes to the rest of the team for feedback.

Second, org-mode files can be a thoughtful repl as each block can be evaluated separately, and the results can be fed back to other blocks… but I’m getting a head of myself.

Exporting Documents

The goal of using an org-mode file, with the methods I present here, is exporting to some document, either HTML, mail messages, Wiki, etc. While Org is really good for technical papers, my focus here is on code and programming.

I’ll just mention that you can use the LaTeX support to write things like the following:

- Unicode References :: for instance, \alpha, \beta and \gamma.
- Subscripts :: like Hydrogen atoms, H_2, and Water, H_{2}O.
- Superscripts :: The mass of the sun is 1.989 x 10^30 kg.
- Embedded Equations :: Surrounded with either single =$=, like $a^2=b$,
  or escaped parenthesis, like: \( b=\frac{1}{2} \)
- Separated equations :: Either in double =$$= or escaped brackets, like
  this: $$ a=\frac{1}{2}\sqrt{2} $$ or this: \[ a=-\sqrt{2} \] or this:

#+OPTIONS: tex:t

And turn that into this pretty HTML:

Unicode References
for instance, α, β and γ.
like Hydrogen atoms, H_2, and Water, H_{2}O.
The mass of the sun is 1.989 x 10^30 kg.
Embedded Equations
Surrounded with either single $, like \(a^2=b\), or escaped parenthesis, like: \( b=\frac{1}{2} \)
Separated equations

Either in double $$ or escaped brackets, like this: \[ a=\frac{1}{2}\sqrt{2} \] or this: \[ a=-\sqrt{2} \] or this:

\begin{equation} x=\sqrt{b} \end{equation}


This tutorial is really a workshop, so fire up Emacs, and create an org-mode file, and let’s get cracking.

Create the following source code block (no, case doesn’t matter):

#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp
  (directory-files ".")
  • Type C-c C-c to execute the command and note the results, are inserted back into your file… we’ll use that to our advantage later.
  • Type C-c ’ (apostrophe) to edit the block in the language’s mode. This allows you to gain benefit of paredit and whatnot.

Note: When I’m wrong and something doesn’t work (notice I didn’t use the term if), pop over to the org-mode manual, and then send me an errata.


If you are using a newer version of Emacs (not v22) or a later version of org-mode (installed from ELPA), use Org Templates:

  • Create a block quickly by typing: <s and hit TAB
  • If not, you can try yasnippets
  • You can hit C-c C-c anywhere from BEGIN to END
  • Jump to next block in your file with C-c M-f and back C-c M-b

Good Configuration

To syntax highlight your code, set the following in your .emacs init file:

(setq org-confirm-babel-evaluate nil
      org-src-fontify-natively t
      org-src-tab-acts-natively t)

The last variable removes the annoying “Do you want to execute” your code when you type: C-c C-c

Language Support

While many programming languages are supported, not everything is (not too difficult to add your own, tho). Let me go through a few popular ones and note a few differences.

Ruby Example

Let’s try re-creating our Lisp example in Ruby:

#+BEGIN_SRC ruby

If C-c C-c doesn’t work, you may have to pre-load the support: M-x load-library and then ob-ruby

You can load yer language beforehand by adding the following to .emacs):

(require 'ob-ruby)

Python Example

Notice that Ruby, like Lisp, uses the results of the last expression. Python, on the other hand, expects the results to come from an explicit return:

#+BEGIN_SRC python
  from os import listdir
  return listdir(".")

Shell Example

Most languages take the resulting values as the results. The shell, on the other hand, uses the results that are printed to standout out:

  ls -1

If C-c C-c doesn’t work, you may have to pre-load the support: M-x load-library and then ob-sh

All Favorite Languages

If, like me, you are a polyglot programmer, you may want to add something like following to your .emacs file:

 '((sh         . t)
   (js         . t)
   (emacs-lisp . t)
   (perl       . t)
   (scala      . t)
   (clojure    . t)
   (python     . t)
   (ruby       . t)
   (dot        . t)
   (css        . t)
   (plantuml   . t)))

Block Settings

Most of the interesting stuff happens by setting various block parameters (also called header parameters). Code blocks can have zero or more header parameters.

First let’s dive into the various ways they can be defined, and then discuss most of the specific parameters after, but I need a parameter we can use.

Example: dir

As an example of how to set a parameter, let’s look at the dir parameter, which sets the directory/folder for where a code block executes:

#+BEGIN_SRC sh :dir /etc

Type C-c C-c to execute this, and you’ll notice a lot more entries in that directory… assuming, of course, you have a /etc directory.

An interesting aspect of this parameter is when you use Tramp references to have code block remotely executed:

  hostname -f

: blobfish

#+BEGIN_SRC sh :dir /
  hostname -f


Setting Parameter Locations

Parameters can be set in different locations. Here is the list from most specific to most general:

  • Inline with Header Block, or above Header Block
  • Defaults for Blocks in a Section
  • Defaults for Blocks in entire Document
  • Defaults for Every Document

Having a particular parameter set for all documents isn’t very useful to me, but this can be done by setting either of these list variables:

  • org-babel-default-header-args
  • org-babel-default-header-args:<lang>

Note: You can set parameters when a block is called, but we’ll talk about this later.

Too Many Parameters?

Setting parameters inline with Header Block is fine with few parameters, but org-mode supplies lots of parameters, and if you have too many, you can bring one or more up above block. For instance, the following are equivalent:

#+BEGIN_SRC sh :dir /etc :var USER="howard"
  grep $USER passwd

#+HEADER: :dir /etc
#+BEGIN_SRC sh :var USER="howard"
  grep $USER passwd

#+HEADER: :dir /etc
#+HEADER: :var USER="howard"
  grep $USER passwd

Section Default Parameters

Parameters that should be the same for all source blocks in a section can be placed in a property drawer. Perhaps, you should just run through this on your own by following these steps:

  • Create a header section in your org file
  • Type: C-c C-x p
  • For Property enter: dir
  • For Value enter: /etc

Jump to the :PROPERTIES: drawer, and hit TAB to see the contents, but it should look something like:

* A New Section
:header-args: dir /etc

#+BEGIN_SRC ruby

: /etc

Language-Specific Default Values

You can specify language-specific header arguments. Try the following:

  • Type: C-c C-x p
  • For Property enter: header-args:sh
  • For Value enter: :dir /etc
  • Type: C-c C-x p
  • For Property enter: header-args:ruby
  • For Value enter: :dir /

You should have something that looks like:

* Another Section
:header-args:sh: :dir /etc
:header-args:ruby: :dir /

  ls -d $(pwd)

: /etc

#+BEGIN_SRC ruby

: /

Note: Some parameters can only be set with header-args.

Default Parameters for Document

To set a parameter for all blocks in a document, use the #+PROPERTY: setting placed somewhere in your document.

#+PROPERTY:    dir ~/Work

Notice these parameters do not have initial colon.

Language specific ones, however, do:

#+PROPERTY:    header-args:sh  :tangle no

Note: They aren’t registered until you hit C-c C-c on them.

Header Parameter Types

With the basics in place, the rest of this tutorial describes the source block controls done by parameter settings. I’ve separated and organized these based on its usage:

Evaluation Parameters
like dir, affects how a block is executed
Export Parameters
affects how a block or the results from execution is shown when it is exported to HTML
Literate Programming Parameters
connecting blocks together to change the actual source code
Variable Parameters
variables for a source block can be set in various ways
Miscellaneous Input/Output
of course, you have to have a collection of parameters that don’t fit elsewhere

Evaluation Parameters

The following parameters affect how a block is evaluated.


When you execute a block, what do you want out of it?

  • results of the expression?
  • outputted results?

Let’s look at this Ruby block. By default, you will get the results of the last expression:

#+BEGIN_SRC ruby
    puts 'Hello World'
    5 * 6

: 30

Change the :results header argument to be output, and you’ll get everything that was printed:

#+BEGIN_SRC ruby :results output
    puts 'Hello World'
    5 * 6

: Hello World

Note: Default for sh is output.

Output Formatting

Results of code evaluation are re-inserted into your document.

Row for single array, full table for array of arrays
Regular org-mode list exported as an un-ordered list
Raw output
Writes the results to a file
Assumes the output is HTML code, and that is what is exported
Assumes output is source code in the same language
Only shown in the mini-buffer

The reasons for this variety is that the results can be exported (as in HTML, Email), as well as can help how the results are used as input variables to other code blocks. Yeah, that is really the most interesting stuff, but I need to save that for later in this document.


Notice the previous output created a table. Let’s make a list:

#+BEGIN_SRC ruby :results list
  Dir.entries('.') do |file|
     file[0] != '.'

- for-the-host.el
- literate-programming-tangling.png
- literate-programming-tangling2.png

The Ruby code above is just an example. Use your favorite language to pull out a list of files from a directory.

Raw Output

Shell commands and log output are good candidates for raw output, for example:

#+BEGIN_SRC sh :results verbatim :exports both
  ssh -v ls mossandcrow

OpenSSH_6.6.1, OpenSSL 1.0.1f 6 Jan 2014
debug1: Reading configuration data /etc/ssh/ssh_config
debug1: /etc/ssh/ssh_config line 19: Applying options for *
debug1: Connecting to [] port 22.
debug1: Connection established.
debug1: identity file /home/howard/.ssh/id_rsa type 1
debug1: identity file /home/howard/.ssh/id_rsa-cert type -1


Each block re-starts its interpreter every time you evaluate a block. Use the :session header parameter as a label and have all blocks with that label use the same session. Why? Some issues with restarting your session include:

  • Large start-up time with large REPLs … like Clojure
  • Large start-up time on remote machines using Tramp
  • Maintaining functions and other state between blocks

Note: Values can be passed between code blocks, so this last feature isn’t necessary.

To show that interpreters are restarted with each block:

#+BEGIN_SRC python
  avar = 42
  return avar

: 42

#+BEGIN_SRC python
  return avar / 2

NameError: global name 'avar' is not defined

To prove that :session-based interpreters are not restarted with each block:

#+BEGIN_SRC ruby :session foobar
  avar = 42

: 42

#+BEGIN_SRC ruby :session foobar
  avar / 2

: 21

The :session is good to set as a section property. Also note that you can switch to the *foobar* buffer to interact with the interpreter, set variables and other state before evaluating the code block.

What’s wrong with the following?

* Confusing Stuff
:header-args: :session  stateful

#+BEGIN_SRC sh :results silent
  NUM_USERS=$(grep 'bash' /etc/passwd | wc -l --)

We have access to them:
  echo $NUM_USERS

: 2

This doesn't return... why?
#+BEGIN_SRC ruby
  21 * 2

Warning: A :session setting for a section is shared for each block… regardless of language! Probably not what you want.

Writing Results to a File

Create and evaluate this block:

#+BEGIN_SRC ruby :results output :file primes.txt
  require 'prime'
  Prime.each(5000) do |prime|
    p prime

Notice that the results of evaluation is a link to a file. Click on the link to load the file in a buffer.

Note: The :file parameter needs :results output As it doesn’t know how to format internal values


Hit C-c C-e h o to display your file in a browser.

The :exports header argument specifies what to export:

  • code for just the block
  • results for just the results to evaluating block
  • both for both code and results
  • none to ignore the block

Note: The :exports is good to set as a document property.

To get syntax highlight for HTML exports, simply include the htmlize library:

(require 'htmlize)

Should come with recent versions of org-mode. Doesn’t load? Install it from ELPA.

Literate Programming

Some programming is useful in creating source code files from an org-mode file (called tangling).


The :tangle parameter takes all blocks of the same language, and writes them into the source file specified.

#+BEGIN_SRC ruby :tangle double-space.rb
  while s = gets
    print s ; puts

Type: C-c C-v t to render double-space.rb

Multiple code blocks with the same value are all included in the same file in order. With a :tangle parameter value of yes, writes the block(s) to a file with same name as org file.

Use PROPERTY to specify values for the entire file:

#+PROPERTY:    tangle ~/.emacs.d/elisp/bling-mode.el


If sharing source with others, have prose turned into comments:

Precede each line in the text from standard in (or file) with the
current line number.
See [[][one liners]].

#+BEGIN_SRC ruby
  while s = gets
    puts "#{$<.file.lineno}: #{s}"

#+PROPERTY: tangle lineno.rb
#+PROPERTY: comments org

Gets turned into this Ruby script:

# Precede each line in the text from standard in (or file) with the
# current line number.
# See [[][one liners]].

while s = gets
  puts "#{$<.file.lineno}: #{s}"

The :comments parameter states how (and if) the prose should be inserted as comments. The org value specifies that the output should just be the prose formatted as org code. Note: Only prose above a block is written out as a comment.

If you change the value to the :dir parameter to link, you end up with a link to the original org-mode file. Since most of my literate code, like my .emacs files, is the only thing I see (I often never look at the generated source code), I haven’t found this helpful.

The default, is no, which doesn’t make any comments from the prose.


When creating scripts, we often need to give it the initial interpreter to use. Here is specify the :shebang parameter (either as a block header or a document property):

Precede each line in the text from standard in (or file) with the
current line number.
See [[][one liners]].

#+BEGIN_SRC ruby :shebang "#!/usr/local/bin/ruby"
  while s = gets
    puts "#{$<.file.lineno}: #{s}"

#+PROPERTY: shebang #!/bin/ruby
#+PROPERTY: tangle lineno
#+PROPERTY: comments org

Works as expected:

# Precede each line in the text from standard in (or file) with the
# current line number.
# See [[][one liners]].

while s = gets
  puts "#{$<.file.lineno}: #{s}"


If you name a block, you can include that block inside another block… as text, using :noweb2. Consider this org-mode file:

Print the last field of each line.

#+NAME: the-script
#+BEGIN_SRC ruby
  puts $F.last

#+BEGIN_SRC sh :noweb yes :tangle
  ruby -ane '<<the-script>>'

Creates source code that contains:

ruby -ane 'puts $F.last'

How useful is this?

Older languages that Donald Knuth used, required all variables and functions to be defined before used. This meant, you always wrote code, bottom-up. However, some code may be better explained from a top-down approach. The web and tangling approach could work well for some algorithms.

Warning about Noweb

Suppose we had a block with multiple lines, as in:

#+NAME: prime
#+BEGIN_SRC ruby
  require "prime"[0])

#+BEGIN_SRC ruby :noweb yes :tangle
  cat $* | xargs ruby -ne '<<prime>>'

Treats the preceding text before the noweb reference like initial comment characters, as it will generate the following:

cat $* | xargs ruby -ne 'require "prime"
cat $* | xargs ruby -ne '[0])'

This requires either here docs or single quotes in a shell, or triple quotes in Python:

cat $* | xargs ruby -ne '


Org can pass in one or move values into your source block as variables. This begin with an example where the variable is statically set:

#+BEGIN_SRC python :var interest=13
  return 313 * (interest / 100.0)

: 40.69

Of course, you can specify multiple variables, in one or more places, as in this example:

#+HEADER: :var a=42 d=56 :var f=23
#+HEADERS: :var b=79 e=79
#+BEGIN_SRC ruby :var c=3 g=2
  [ a, b, c, d, e, f, g ]

| 42 | 79 | 3 | 56 | 79 | 23 | 2 |

But how useful is there in setting static values for a variable?

Block-to-Block Value Passing

Following along by creating a source block with a name, as in:

#+NAME: twelve-primes
#+BEGIN_SRC ruby
  require 'prime'
  Prime.first 12

#+RESULTS: twelve-primes
| 2 | 3 | 5 | 7 | 11 | 13 | 17 | 19 | 23 | 29 | 31 | 37 |

Notice the RESULTS: section has the same name as the block. We can pass this result into another code block as an array variable:

#+BEGIN_SRC python :var primes=twelve-primes
  return primes[-1]

: 37

Perhaps this is the first time Ruby and Python have worked together.

Tabular Variable Data

For this next example, I need a table of interesting numbers. A wee bit of Lisp will do handy, but feel free to re-write in your favorite language:

#+NAME: cool-numbers
#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp
  (mapcar (lambda (i)
            (list i          (random 10)
                  (expt i 2) (random 100)
                  (expt i 3) (random 1000)))
          (number-sequence 1 10))

#+RESULTS: cool-numbers
|  1 | 1 |   1 | 14 |    1 |  74 |
|  2 | 7 |   4 | 25 |    8 | 823 |
|  3 | 2 |   9 | 68 |   27 | 402 |
|  4 | 4 |  16 | 17 |   64 | 229 |
|  5 | 6 |  25 |  4 |  125 | 208 |
|  6 | 7 |  36 | 67 |  216 | 203 |
|  7 | 0 |  49 | 96 |  343 | 445 |
|  8 | 0 |  64 | 58 |  512 | 908 |
|  9 | 2 |  81 | 15 |  729 | 465 |
| 10 | 0 | 100 | 61 | 1000 | 798 |

Instead of copying the source code and running it, you could just store the table of numbers directly in your document, as in:

#+NAME: cool-numbers
|  1 | 1 |   1 | 14 |    1 |  74 |
|  2 | 7 |   4 | 25 |    8 | 823 |
|  3 | 2 |   9 | 68 |   27 | 402 |
|  4 | 4 |  16 | 17 |   64 | 229 |
|  5 | 6 |  25 |  4 |  125 | 208 |
|  6 | 7 |  36 | 67 |  216 | 203 |
|  7 | 0 |  49 | 96 |  343 | 445 |
|  8 | 0 |  64 | 58 |  512 | 908 |
|  9 | 2 |  81 | 15 |  729 | 465 |
| 10 | 0 | 100 | 61 | 1000 | 798 |

How we use and process those numbers below doesn’t change with either approach. By the way, I often create data tables to use as parameters for testing some of my functions, let me show you how this works.

The cool-numbers table becomes an array or arrays for our block, so let’s use a Python comprehension to spit out the values into one long array. And just to make it interesting, let’s increment each number:

#+BEGIN_SRC python :var nums=cool-numbers :results list
  return [ cell + 1 for row in nums for cell in row ]

- 2
- 4
- 2
- 23
- 2
- 955
- 3
- 7
- 5
- 43
- 9

Slicing and Dicing Tables

We can get just a single row from a table, but giving an indexed number to the cool-numbers table reference. Check out this short Ruby block:

#+BEGIN_SRC ruby :var fifth=cool-numbers[4]

| 5 | 9 | 25 | 93 | 125 | 524 |

We can also get just a single column in a similar way. In this case, the comma specifies that we want any row, but the 4 limits it to just the fifth column that contains our numbers raised to the third power:

#+NAME: cubes
#+BEGIN_SRC elisp :var cubes=cool-numbers[,4]

#+RESULTS: cubes
| 1 | 8 | 27 | 64 | 125 | 216 | 343 | 512 | 729 | 1000 |


The cool-numbers was used in the cubes block (that we named), and we can use the results from that block in another block:

#+NAME: roots_of_list
#+BEGIN_SRC python :var lst=cubes :results list
  import math
  return [ math.sqrt(n) for n in lst ]

#+RESULTS: roots_of_list
- 1.0
- 2.8284271247461903
- 5.196152422706632
- 8.0
- 11.180339887498949
- 14.696938456699069
- 18.520259177452136
- 22.627416997969522
- 27.0
- 31.622776601683793

Keeping your Blocks Clean

While a block of code does something, a block of code also communicates something. Code that is necessary to execute, but doesn’t not important to communicate with your teammates can be placed outside of the block. Here are few examples of how that can be done.

Environment Setup

I often query OpenStack instances with its nova command. This command reads connection credentials from environment variables, and we often set these in resource files. A typical session would go like:

$ source openrc
$ nova list

The code in a block I want to communicate is the nova list, however, the source command is necessary if I want to execute it and include the results, but not something I want exported. Put unsightly code in :prologue sections:

#+HEADER: :prologue "source openrc"
  nova list

Code in the :prologue will not be exported, and my team mates who receive my illustrious prose, will only see the nova list and possibly the results of executing it.

Using RVM

Languages like Python and Ruby often want a virtual machine to specify how something should be processed. You can use :prologue with two backslashes to pre-pend it (for shell calls anyway):

#+BEGIN_SRC sh :prologue "~/.rvm/bin/rvm 1.9.3@msw exec \\"
  gem list

Note: Execution of Ruby or Python code is based on the rvm, or pyvenv or ELPY.

Cleaning Results

Sometimes the results from an evaluation aren’t exactly what we want exported to our document. While we could probably change the code, perhaps our point is the code as written.

For example, the shell command, ls -l, pre-pends an initial Total line:

The =ls= command now takes a =time-style= parameter, as in:

  ls -lhG --time-style long-iso

| total      | 5.8M |        |      |            |       |                                     |
| -rw-rw-r-- |    1 | howard | 6.0K | 2015-09-02 | 17:36 |                      |
| -rw-rw-r-- |    1 | howard | 22K  | 2015-07-05 | 11:13 |                      |
| -rw-rw-r-- |    1 | howard | 3.0K | 2015-07-05 | 11:13 |                          |
| -rw-rw-r-- |    1 | howard | 4.3K | 2015-09-02 | 12:52 |                |
| -rw-rw-r-- |    1 | howard | 5.1K | 2015-03-30 | 18:08 |                 |

This screws up our table. We could change our block to use the tail command, as in:

  ls -lhG --time-style long-iso | tail -n +2

However, in this example, I was talking about the ls command, not the tail command. It doesn’t belong.

We can change the output from a code block using the :post parameter, this allows us to have the code block we wish to show, as well as the resulting output.

In this example, to remove the first line, we create a processor code block to return all lines except the first. We specify none to the :exports parameter since I don’t want to have it included in any documents I may export. Notice, the variable, data:

#+NAME: skip_first
#+BEGIN_SRC elisp :var data="" :exports none
  (cdr data)

Now our code block can contain just the ls -l, but we sent the output to the skip_first block. We assign its data variable to *this* (which refers to our output), and now we only have files:

#+BEGIN_SRC sh :post skip_first(data=*this*)
  ls -lhG --time-style long-iso

| -rw-rw-r-- |    1 | howard | 6.0K | 2015-09-02 | 17:36 |                      |
| -rw-rw-r-- |    1 | howard | 22K  | 2015-07-05 | 11:13 |                      |
| -rw-rw-r-- |    1 | howard | 3.0K | 2015-07-05 | 11:13 |                          |
| -rw-rw-r-- |    1 | howard | 4.3K | 2015-09-02 | 12:52 |                |
| -rw-rw-r-- |    1 | howard | 5.1K | 2015-03-30 | 18:08 |                 |

The :post parameter comes in really helpful when we talk about the Tower of Babel below, as you can create a collection of these sorts of output processors and use them in other documents.

Miscellaneous Features

The following are some parameters and other features that didn’t seem to fit before.

Calling Blocks

So far, our code blocks have pulled values into their code blocks with the :var parameter, however, we can also push values into blocks by calling it elsewhere in our document.

Remember our roots_of_list block we created above? It took a variable, lst, but here we re-call it with a different value for its variable:

#+CALL: roots_of_list( lst='(16 144 81 61) )

| 4.0 | 12.0 | 9.0 | 7.810249675906654 |

We can also call it with values from the output of another code block. Here we pass in a column from our cool-numbers table:

#+CALL: roots_of_list( lst=cool-numbers[,2] )

| 1.0 | 2.0 | 3.0 | 4.0 | 5.0 | 6.0 | 7.0 | 8.0 | 9.0 | 10.0 |

Note: You can set additional parameters for the block inside brackets. See Evaluating code blocks for details.

How does this look when exported? Depends on the results. If the block returned a single value, for instance, something like:

#+NAME: cube
#+BEGIN_SRC elisp :var n=0 :exports none
  (* n n n)

Calling it with a table does what you expect:

#+CALL: cube[:results table](n=3)

But calling it with a list, seems to export it inside a <pre> block. YMMV, I suppose.

Embedded Results

If you want a quickly evaluated result from a language, you can embed code in curlies. For instance, add the following to your org file, and type C-c C-c at the beginning of the line:

src_ruby{ 5+6 } =11=

The answer, 11, was appended to the line. When exported, only the results are shown (not the source).

I suppose these would be most useful within the prose, as in:

We will be bringing src_ruby{ 5+6 } children.

Note: The answer will be wrapped in HTML <code> tags.

You can insert the results of a shell script:

Why do I have src_sh{ ls /tmp | wc -l } files?

Or even the insert the results from an Emacs Lisp function:

src_elisp{ org-agenda-files }

Also supports calling blocks too. For instance, we defined a block of code earlier and named it roots_of_list, and this can be called:

call_roots_of_list( lst=cool-numbers[,2] )
| 1.0 | 2.0 | 3.0 | 4.0 | 5.0 | 6.0 | 7.0 | 8.0 | 9.0 | 10.0 |

Warning: During my workshop, when I was demonstrating this feature, we noticed that if you C-c C-c the src_XYZ feature to embed the answer, when you export it, you will have two answers. The one you embedded and the results of evaluating the code during the exporting.

Library of Babel

The Library of Babel is a collection of code blocks accessible to any org-mode file. Like the Gem resources for Ruby, you specify the files containing named blocks that should be accessible.

Do this by following these steps:

  • Create a new org-mode file with at least one named block
  • Once in your Emacs session: C-c C-v i
  • Select your new file to specify that this should be added to babel collection.

Try it out with a code block that might be nice to use:

#+NAME: take
#+BEGIN_SRC elisp :var data='() only=5
  (require 'cl)
  (flet ((take (remaining lst)
               (if (> remaining 0)
                 (cons (car lst) (take (1- remaining) (cdr lst)))
    (take only data))

After you have saved this new file, and loaded it as a babel addition, let’s use it with a :post parameter:

#+BEGIN_SRC python :post take(data=*this*, only=3)
  return [x * x for x in range(1, 20)]

| 1 | 4 | 9 | ... |

This feature is really helpful with:

  • :post processing output
  • #+CALL where you want just the results on line
  • call_XYZ() where you want results embedded inline

For a more permanent addition to your tower, add a call to org-babel-lob-ingest with each file to your Emacs init file.

Specialized Languages

I’ve found a few programming languages that really add to an org-mode way of writing documents.


The ability to query a database with SQL statements, and then manipulate the results in other languages is quite interesting, and if I felt I could have used them, would have made this workshop-tutorial less trivial (but also less accessible).

Assuming that you have installed Sqlite, and loaded the library in Emacs with: M-x load-library then ob-sqlite

You can then specify a :db parameter to a database created by calling .backup in the Sqlite command line program. We can then write blocks like:

#+BEGIN_SRC sqlite :db dolphins.db
  SELECT gender,COUNT(gender) FROM oasis GROUP BY gender;

| f | 55 |
| m | 89 |

Which renders a nice, simple table:

f 55
m 89

If you like this idea, check out my Literate Database essay.


If you have Graphviz installed, we can create an diagram directly from your document:

#+BEGIN_SRC dot :file some-illustration.png
  digraph {
    a -> b;
    b -> c:
    c -> a;

For these, I often set :exports results so that the code to generate the image isn’t exported.

Warning: If you wish to execute the code block to generate an image, the language needs to be set to dot, but if you want to edit the code in a side buffer (with the C-c ’ … apostrophe), you need to change the language to graphviz-dot.


If you have PlantUML installed, you can do something like:

#+BEGIN_SRC plantuml :file sequence.png :exports results
  @startuml sequence-diagram.png

    Alice -> Bob: synchronous call
    Alice ->> Bob: asynchronous call


Hrm… have descriptive illustrations associated with your source code?


We have access the impressive Emacs Calculator as well to use a more normal mathematical syntax.

#+BEGIN_SRC calc :var a=2 b=9 c=64 x=5
  ((a+b)^3 + sqrt(c)) / (2x+1)

: 121.727272727

Let’s simplify a formula by leaving out some of the values for a variable:

#+BEGIN_SRC calc :var a=4 b=2
  ((a+b)^3 + sqrt(c)) / (2x+1)

: (sqrt(c) + 216) / (2 x + 1)

You may need to load it: M-x load-library and type: ob-calc

Keep in mind that each line of each calc block is placed on the stack in the Calc mode buffer (see it with C-x * *).


Here is a summary listing of the header arguments, separated based on your goal or needs:

  • Code Evaluation?
    specify directory the code should run … Tramp?
    re-use interpreter between code blocks
    write results to the file system
    limit evaluation of specific code blocks
    cache eval results to avoid re-evaluation of blocks
    setting variables for a block (ignore with no-expand)
  • Exporting?
    either output or value and the formatting
    how the code and results should be exported
  • Literate Programming?
    how the source written to a script file … this is literate programming.
    create parent directory of tangled source file
    the initial line written to tangled files
    toggle expansion of noweb references
    resolution target for noweb references
  • Special Input?
    text to prepend to code block body
    text to append to code block body
  • Special Output and Formatting?
    post processing of code block results
    hlines, colnames, rownames



Online reader, Mitch, mentioned the difference between WEB and noweb:

WEB is the original literate programming framework, combining Pascal and TeX. And noweb is a language-agnostic literate programming framework later created by Norman Ramsey to make literate programming more accessible:


The term web is from Knuth’s original program for tangling out source code. Since each code block could be re-inserted into other blocks, he saw this as creating a tangled web of connections.

Date: 2016 Feb 17

Created: 2023-01-11 Wed 21:34